Circular economy remains a dream to come true

Written by Benedek Jávor on 15 March 2018 in Opinion

The circular economy package has the potential to yield incredible results for Europe’s economy and resource efficiency, but member states are using loopholes to avoid implementing key measures, says Benedek Jávor.

Benedek Jávor | Photo credit: European Parliament audiovisual

The circular economy package is one of the most important tools for resource efficiency and a sustainable European economy. 

Its benefits range from reducing our environmental and climate impact through decreasing the resource dependency of the continent to creating jobs and helping the EU retain its competitiveness in the 21st century. 

However, the texts adopted on paper are not yet yielding results - much effort is still needed to turn the dream into reality.


One of the key criteria for success is the proper transposition of the circular economy package into member state law. Experiences to date show that EU countries tend to be slow in adopting complex and difficult regulations.

For example, transposition of the previous energy efficiency and waste directives took so long that the Commission had to launch infringement procedures against several member states. In some cases, the texts themselves were adopted into national law, but the outcomes failed to reflect the spirit of the directive.

Another important issue is implementation. EU environmental legislation is intended to make people’s lives better, but rules only work if they are actually applied.

Member states very often look for loopholes, so if the European regulation contains some flexibility, national governments try to take advantage of it. For example, the directives allow incineration, but this doesn’t mean governments should stop trying to find better solutions for waste management.

The regulation clearly states that waste prevention and recycling are higher up on the waste management hierarchy and are greatly preferable to incineration. Yet some member states take advantage of the directives’ flexibility by investing in incineration as an alternative to landfilling. This is being done in place of reducing waste quantity, increasing recycling rates and prolonging the lifecycle of products, in line with the aims of the package.

Proper implementation needs strong and competent national authorities as well as strict follow-up by the Commission, especially regarding deadline and target compliance.

On environmental policy, more than 300 infringement cases are currently ongoing, while 64 await a decision from the European Court of Justice. This clearly indicates the critical shortcomings of the transposition and implementation of the EU’s environmental regulation by member states.

This long list of infringements could be cut by an effective early warning system that rings the alarm where a member state does not follow the trajectory of a regulatory target. Such a system could point to problems before a member state fails to implement a regulation and risks incurring sanctions. 

The environmental implementation review could serve as a useful tool for following up the implementation of the circular economy package.

However, we need a clear and effective mechanism to send feedback to and put timely pressure on member states showing weaknesses in implementation and divergence from the trajectory to meet the targets on time.

In addition, finance is key to realising the full benefits of the circular economy package. Therefore, it should be a top priority in the EU budget. The sustainability and climate goals, including those featured in the package, should be mainstreamed and form part of the budget horizontally, with special emphasis on cohesion and agricultural policies. 

The EU budget currently has an old-fashioned structure that should be revised and the counter-productivity of some policy measures financed by the EU budget should be dealt with in the next MFF.


About the author

Benedek Jávor (Greens/EFA, HU) is a Vice-Chair of Parliament’s environment, public health and food safety committee

Interested in this content?

Sign up to our free daily email bulletins.


Share this page



Related Partner Content

Making a circular European bioeconomy happen
21 September 2018

The European forest fibre and paper industry is a catalyst for Europe’s circular bioeconomy, explains Sylvain Lhôte.

How cities can lead the sustainability transition
24 September 2019

We need to rethink our relationship with nature when building cities, argue Marc Palahí, Stefano Boeri, Maria Chiara Pastore and Vicente Guallart.

Life Cycle Thinking is the key to unlocking the Circular Economy
20 January 2017

The great advantage of Life Cycle Analysis is its ability to discover areas of weakness and improve upon them, explains Henri Colens.